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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

How to Construct Four Paper Models
that Describe Island Coral Reefs

Tau Rho Alpha*
Open-file Report 91-131-A

This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Although this program has been used by the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy and functioning of the program and related program material, nor shall the fact of distribution constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in connection therewith.

*U.S. Geological, Survey
Menlo Park, CA 94025

Comments encouraged
talpha@ISDMNL.wr.usgs.gov



Description of Report

This report contains instructions and patterns for preparing a set of four, three-dimensional paper models that schematically illustrate the development of island coral. The first model is of a shield volcano that extends above sea level, making a volcanic island. The second model is of the original shield volcano and volcanic island that have developed a fringing reef of coral growing at sea level. The third model is of a lagoon and a barrier reef after a rise in sea level. The coral reef has grown, producing a lagoon between the volcanic island and the reef, (scientists call this a barrier reef). The fourth model is of an atoll. Most of the original shield volcano has disappeared because of the continual rise in sea level, the growing coral kept pace with the rising water.

These models are intended to help students and others visualize the growth of coral on an island and to learn some of the terminology used by earth scientists to describe coral reefs. By constructing and examining these model landforms, students will achieve a greater appreciation of the relations between volcanic islands, the growth of coral reefs, and atolls.

Purchasers of the diskette version of this report, which includes all of the text and graphics, can use HyperCard 2.0™ software (not supplied) to change the models (by adding geologic patterns, symbols, colors, etc.) or to transfer the models to other graphic software packages. Requirements for the diskette version are: Apple Computer, Inc. HyperCard 2.O™ software, and Apple Macintosh™ Plus, Classic, SE, or II.

The date of this Open-File Report is 2/22/1991. OF 91-131-A, paper copy, OF 91-131-B, 3.5-in. Macintosh diskette.

To order this report contact: USGS Information Services, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225, 1-800-USA-MAPS


Selected References for Additional Reading

Darwin, Charles, 1898, The structure and distribution of coral reefs (3d. ed.): New York, D. Appleton and Co., 344 p.

Davis, W. M.. 1928, The coral reef problem: New York, American Geographical Society Special Publication 9, 569 p.

Shepard, F. P., 1977, Geological oceanography: New York, Cane Russak and Co., Inc., 214 p.

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